• Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome 

      Barrio, Isabel C.; Lindén, Elin; te Beest, Mariska; Olofsson, Johan; Rocha, Adrian; Soininen, Eeva M; Alatalo, Juha M.; Andersson, Tommi; Asmus, Ashley; Boike, Julia; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Bryant, John P.; Buchwal, Agata; Bueno, C. Guillermo; Christie, Katherine S.; Denisova, Yulia V.; Egelkraut, Dagmar; Ehrich, Dorothee; Fishback, LeeAnn; Forbes, Bruce C.; Gartzia, Maite; Grogan, Paul; Hallinger, Martin; Heijmans, Monicque M.P.D.; Hik, David S.; Hofgaard, Annika; Holmgren, Milena; Høye, Toke T.; Huebner, Diane C.; Jonsdottir, Ingibjørg; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Kumpula, Timo; Lange, Cynthia Y.M.J.G.; Lange, Jelena; Lévesque, Esther; Limpens, Juul; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Myers-Smith, Isla; Van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Normand, Signe; Post, Eric S.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Sitters, Judith; Skoracka, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolova, Natalya; Speed, James David Mervyn; Street, Lorna E.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Suominen, Otso; Tananaev, Nikita; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Urbanowicz, Christine; Uvarov, Sergey A.; Watts, David; Wilmking, Martin; Wookey, Philip A.; Zimmermann, Heike H.; Zverev, Vitali; Kozlov, Mikhail V. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to ...
    • Biding time before breeding: flexible use of the Arctic landscape by migratory geese during spring 

      Anderson, Helen; Hübner, Christiane E.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Madsen, Jesper; van der Wal, René (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Many millions of long-distance migrants use pre-breeding staging sites located adjacent to breeding grounds immediately prior to nesting, presumably to improve body condition and thus reproductive success. However, in ...
    • Can mowing restore boreal rich-fen vegetation in the face of climate change? 

      Ross, Louise C.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Øien, Dag-Inge; Grygoruk, Mateusz; Hassel, Kristian; Lyngstad, Anders; Moen, Asbjørn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Low-frequency mowing has been proposed to be an effective strategy for the restoration and management of boreal fens after abandonment of traditional haymaking. This study investigates how mowing affects long-term vegetation ...
    • Cervid Exclusion Alters Boreal Forest Properties with Little Cascading Impacts on Soils 

      Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Woodin, Sarah J.; Venete, Aurel M A (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Large herbivores are capable of modifying entire ecosystems with a combination of direct (for example browsing/grazing, trampling, defecation) and indirect (for example affecting plant species composition that then alters ...
    • Contrasting spatial, temporal and environmental patterns in observation and specimen based species occurrence data 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Bendiksby, Mika; Finstad, Anders Gravbrøt; Hassel, Kristian; Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Prestø, Tommy (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Species occurrence data records the location and time of an encounter with a species, and is valuable for many aspects of ecological and evolutionary analyses. A key distinction within species occurrence data is between ...
    • Contrasting spatial, temporal and environmental patterns in observation and specimen based species occurrence data 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Bendiksby, Mika; Finstad, Anders Gravbrøt; Hassel, Kristian; Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Prestø, Tommy (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Species occurrence data records the location and time of an encounter with a species, and is valuable for many aspects of ecological and evolutionary analyses. A key distinction within species occurrence data is between ...
    • Differential patterns of floristic phylogenetic diversity across a post-glacial landscape 

      Mienna, Ida M.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Bendiksby, Mika; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Mishler, Brent D; Martin, Michael David (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Aim: In this study, we explored spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity (PD) and end-emism in the flora of Norway and tested hypothesized post-glacial environmental drivers of PD, including temperature, precipitation, ...
    • Effects of hydropeaking on benthic invertebrate community composition in two central Norwegian rivers 

      Kjærstad, Gaute; Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Speed, James David Mervyn; Herland, Anne Karine (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Hydropower regulations can have dramatic impacts on river ecological communities. The operation of hydropower stations is related to power demands, but their releases in the receiving water body causes sudden changes in ...
    • Evidence of effects of herbivory on Arctic vegetation: a systematic map protocol 

      Soininen, Eeva M; Barrio, I.; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Ehrich, Dorothee; Ravolainen, Virve; Speed, James David Mervyn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Background: Along with climate change, herbivory is considered a main driver of ecosystem change in terrestrial Arctic environments. Understanding how herbivory influences the resilience of Arctic ecosystems to ongoing ...
    • Experimental effects of herbivore density on above-ground plant biomass in an alpine grassland ecosystem 

      Austrheim, Gunnar; Speed, James David Mervyn; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Mysterud, Atle (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Herbivores may increase or decrease aboveground plant productivity depending on factors such as herbivore density and habitat productivity. The grazing optimization hypothesis predicts a peak in plant production at ...
    • Hiding in the background: community-level patterns in invertebrate herbivory across the tundra biome 

      Rheubottom, Sarah I.; Barrio, Isabel C.; Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Andersson, Tommi; Asmus, Ashley L.; Baubin, Capucine; Brearley, Francis Q.; Egelkraut, Dagmar; Ehrich, Dorothee; Gauthier, Gilles; Jonsdottir, Ingibjørg; Konieczka, Sophia; Lévesque, Esther; Olofsson, Johan; Prevéy, Janet S.; Slevan-Tremblay, Guillaume; Sokolov, Aleksandr; Sokolova, Natalia; Sokovnina, Svetlana; Speed, James David Mervyn; Suominen, Otso; Zverev, Vitali; Hik, David S. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Invertebrate herbivores depend on external temperature for growth and metabolism. Continued warming in tundra ecosystems is proposed to result in increased invertebrate herbivory. However, empirical data about how current ...
    • Hiding in the background: community-level patterns in invertebrate herbivory across the tundra biome 

      Rheubottom, Sarah I.; Barrio, Isabel C.; Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Andersson, Tommi; Asmus, Ashley L.; Baubin, Capucine; Brearley, Francis Q.; Egelkraut, Dagmar; Ehrich, Dorothee; Gauthier, Gilles; Jonsdottir, Ingibjørg; Konieczka, Sophia; Lévesque, Esther; Olofsson, Johan; Prevéy, Janet S.; Slevan-Tremblay, Guillaume; Sokolov, Aleksandr; Sokolova, Natalia; Sokovnina, Svetlana; Speed, James David Mervyn; Suominen, Otso; Zverev, Vitali; Hik, David S. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Invertebrate herbivores depend on external temperature for growth and metabolism. Continued warming in tundra ecosys-tems is proposed to result in increased invertebrate herbivory. However, empirical data about how current ...
    • How does microclimate affect the growth of the rare liverwort Scapania nimbosa? 

      Wangen, Kristin; Speed, James David Mervyn; Hassel, Kristian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Vegetative growth of bryophytes is dependent on water and will stop as soon as the plants dry out. The growth rate depends on the quality of the micro-habitat. Clonal growth and dispersal of plant fragments are important ...
    • Hyper-oceanic liverwort species of conservation concern: Evidence for dispersal limitation and identification of suitable uncolonised regions 

      Wangen, Kristin; Speed, James David Mervyn; Hassel, Kristian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      In order to successfully manage and conserve species and plant communities, it is important to have a good understanding of their ecology and distributions. The three liverwort species Anastrophyllum donnianum, Scapania ...
    • Impact of an invasive alien plant on litter decomposition along a latitudinal gradient 

      Helsen, Kenny; Smith, Stuart; Brunet, J; Cousins, Sara A.O.; De Frenne, Pieter; Kimberley, Adam; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Ma, Shiyu; Michaelis, Jana; Pule, Jan; Verheyen, Kris; Speed, James David Mervyn; Graae, Bente Jessen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Invasive alien plant effects on ecosystem functions are often difficult to predict across environmental gradients due to the context-dependent interactions between the invader and the recipient communities. Adopting a ...
    • Impacts of an invasive plant on primary production: Testing a functional trait-based framework with a greenhouse experiment 

      Helsen, Kenny; Kapás, Rozália Erzsebet; Rakvaag, Grete; Speed, James David Mervyn; Graae, Bente Jessen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Questions Predicting when invasive species will affect ecosystem functioning remains problematic, with strong contingency upon both the invasive species and the recipient community's identities. Adopting a functional ...
    • Is interspecific gene flow and speciation in peatmosses (Sphagnum) constrained by phylogenetic relationship and life-history traits? 

      Meleshko, Olena; Stenøien, Hans K.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Peatmosses are interesting for studies of speciation processes not only because of their frequent hybridization and recent diversification, but also their phenotypic diversity, ecological importance and ancient history. ...
    • Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-uses 

      Smith, Stuart; Speed, James David Mervyn; Bukombe, John; Hassan, Shombe Ntaraluka; Lyamuya, Richard Daniel; Mtweve, Philipo Jacob; Sundsdal, Anders; Graae, Bente Jessen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition ...
    • Long-term changes in northern large-herbivore communities reveal differential rewilding rates in space and time 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar; Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Solberg, Erling Johan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Herbivores have important impacts on ecological and ecosystem dynamics. Population density and species composition are both important determinants of these impacts. Large herbivore communities are shifting in many parts ...
    • Long-term Effects of Shifts in Grazing Pressure on Alpine Plant Species along an Elevational Gradient 

      Maurset, Marie Uhlen (Master thesis, 2015)
      Sheep (Ovis aries) are the main large herbivore in Norwegian mountains during summer and these herbivores have shaped alpine plant communities over a long land-use history. Sheep are selective feeders, and increased livestock ...