• Is interspecific gene flow and speciation in peatmosses (Sphagnum) constrained by phylogenetic relationship and life-history traits? 

      Meleshko, Olena; Stenøien, Hans K.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Peatmosses are interesting for studies of speciation processes not only because of their frequent hybridization and recent diversification, but also their phenotypic diversity, ecological importance and ancient history. ...
    • Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-uses 

      Smith, Stuart; Speed, James David Mervyn; Bukombe, John; Hassan, Shombe Ntaraluka; Lyamuya, Richard Daniel; Mtweve, Philipo Jacob; Sundsdal, Anders; Graae, Bente Jessen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition ...
    • Long-term changes in northern large-herbivore communities reveal differential rewilding rates in space and time 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar; Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Solberg, Erling Johan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Herbivores have important impacts on ecological and ecosystem dynamics. Population density and species composition are both important determinants of these impacts. Large herbivore communities are shifting in many parts ...
    • Long-term Effects of Shifts in Grazing Pressure on Alpine Plant Species along an Elevational Gradient 

      Maurset, Marie Uhlen (Master thesis, 2015)
      Sheep (Ovis aries) are the main large herbivore in Norwegian mountains during summer and these herbivores have shaped alpine plant communities over a long land-use history. Sheep are selective feeders, and increased livestock ...
    • Long-Term Increase in Aboveground Carbon Stocks Following Exclusion of Grazers and Forest Establishment in an Alpine Ecosystem 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Martinsen, Vegard; Mysterud, Atle; Mulder, Jan; Holand, Øystein; Austrheim, Gunnar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Ecosystem stores of carbon are a key component in the global carbon cycle. Many studies have examined the impact of climate change on ecosystem carbon storage, but few have investigated the impact of land-use change and ...
    • Management Effects on Low-Herb Diversity in Outlying Grasslands 

      Vold, Else Marte (Master thesis, 2013)
      During the past century there have been vast changes in land use, which have led to succession processes in outlying lands. As a consequence, species-rich semi-natural grasslands are disappearing and many of their associated ...
    • Modelling Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) lek sites distribution and their limiting factors in a central Norwegian managed forest landscape 

      Thingstad, Per Gustav; Daverdin, Marc; Speed, James David Mervyn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Forest management has substantially altered Fennoscandian forests through clear-cutting practices started during the 1950s. Impacts on the natural biodiversity in mature boreal forest have been inevitable. The Capercaillie ...
    • Moose effects on soil temperatures, tree canopies, and understory vegetation: a path analysis 

      Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Austrheim, Gunnar; Graae, Bente Jessen; Solberg, Erling Johan; Strimbeck, Richard; Speed, James David Mervyn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Large vertebrate herbivores are ubiquitous and increasingly numerous in boreal forests where they are known to influence ecosystems in many ways. However, separating the direct effects of herbivores from their indirect ...
    • Natural and cultural heritage in mountain landscapes: towards an integrated valuation 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar; Birks, Harry John Betteley; Johnson, Sally; Kvamme, Mons; Nagy, Laszlo; Sjøgren, Per Johan E; Skar, Birgitte; Stone, Duncan; Svensson, Eva; Thompson, Des B.A. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      Mountain areas of Europe have been managed by humans for a long time, leading to a prevalence of semi-natural habitats in mountain landscapes today. These landscapes contain both natural and cultural heritage; however, ...
    • Pervasive moose browsing in boreal forests alters successional trajectories by severely suppressing keystone species 

      Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Austrheim, Gunnar; Solberg, Erling Johan; De Vriendt, Laurent; Speed, James David Mervyn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Large herbivores can shape young forest stands and determine the successional trajectory of forested ecosystems by selectively browsing palatable species at the sapling stage. Moose (Alces alces) is the dominant vertebrate ...
    • Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome 

      Bjorkman, Anne D.; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Normand, Signe; Rüger, Nadja; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Blok, Daan; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Georges, Damien; Goetz, Scott J.; Guay, Kevin C.; Henry, Gregory H.R.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Hollister, Robert D.; Karger, Dirk N.; Kattge, Jens; Manning, Peter; Prevéy, Janet S.; Rixen, Christian; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Thomas, Haydn J.D.; Vellend, Mark; Wilmking, Martin; Wipf, Sonja; Carbognani, Michele; Hermanutz, Luise; Lévesque, Esther; Molau, Ulf; Petraglia, Alessandro; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; Spasojevic, Marko J.; Tomaselli, Marcello; Vowles, Tage; Alatalo, Juha M.; Alexander, Heather D.; Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; te Beest, Mariska; Berner, Logan; Björk, Robert G.; Buchwal, Agata; Buras, Allan; Christie, Katherine; Cooper, Elisabeth J.; Dullinger, Stefan; Elberling, Bo; Eskelinen, Anu; Frei, Esther R.; Grau, Oriol; Grogan, Paul; Hallinger, Martin; Semenschuk, Philipp; Speed, James David Mervyn; Hofgaard, Annika (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental ...
    • The relative role of climate and herbivory in driving treeline dynamics along a latitudinal gradient 

      Mienna, Ida Marielle; Speed, James David Mervyn; Klanderud, Kari; Austrheim, Gunnar; Næsset, Erik; Bollandsås, Ole Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Aim The treeline is an obvious ecotone between forest and tundra ecosystems. Climatic warming is expected to lead to the treeline advancing, although in many cases this has not been observed. This is most likely because ...
    • Rogn, osp og selje-Har de en framtid i norsk natur? 

      Solberg, Erling Johan; Myking, Tor; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bøhler, Fredrik; Eriksen, Rune; Speed, James David Mervyn; Astrup, Rasmus Andreas (NINA rapport;806, Research report, 2012)
      Rogn, osp og selje finnes i alle deler av landet, men med varierende tettheter. Ospa er mest vanlig i kystnære områder i sørøst-Norge, mens rogn og selje er mere jevnt fordelt over hele landet. Artene er særmerket av kort ...
    • Savannah trees buffer herbaceous plant biomass against wild and domestic herbivores 

      Smith, Stuart; Graae, Bente Jessen; Bukombe, John; Hassan, Shombe N.; Lyamuya, Richard Daniel; Mtweve, Philipo Jacob; Treydte, Anna C; Speed, James David Mervyn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Questions Given the growing abundance and dominance of domestic herbivores in savannah ecosystems, can trees maintain plant herbaceous standing biomass under increasing herbivore pressure? Are there differences in the ...
    • Stomping in silence: Conceptualizing trampling effects on soils in polar tundra 

      Tuomi, Maria; Väisänen, Maria; Ylänne, H; Brearley, Francis Q.; Barrio, Isabel C.; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Eischeid, Isabell; Forbes, Bruce C.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Kolstad, Anders Lorentzen; Macek, Petr; Petit Bon, Matteo; Speed, James David Mervyn; Stark, Sari; Svavarsdóttir, Kristin; Thorsson, Johann; Bueno, C. Guillermo (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Ungulate trampling modifies soils and interlinked ecosystem functions across biomes. Until today, most research has focused on temperate ecosystems and mineral soils while trampling effects on cold and organic matter‐rich ...
    • Teatime in the Serengeti: macrodetritivores sustain recalcitrant plant litter decomposition across human-modified tropical savannahs 

      Sundsdal, Anders; Graae, Bente Jessen; Speed, James David Mervyn; Bukombe, John; Mtweve, Philipo Jacob; Arneberg, Marit K.; Haukenes, Vilde; Grevskott, Ragnhild TH.; Smith, Stuart (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Background and aims Intensification of savannah land-use is predicted to negatively influence soil biodiversity and functioning such as litter decomposition by detritivores. Loss of macrodetritivores, particularly termites, ...
    • The burning question: does fire affect habitat selection and forage preference of the black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis in East African savannahs? 

      Anderson, T.M.; Ngoti, P. M.; Nzunda, M.L.; Griffith, D. M.; Speed, James David Mervyn; Fossøy, Frode; Røskaft, Eivin; Graae, Bente Jessen (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The conservation of threatened species requires information on how management activities influence habitat quality. The Critically Endangered black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis is restricted to savannahs representing c. 5% ...
    • The handbook for standardized field and laboratory measurements in terrestrial climate change experiments and observational studies (ClimEx) 

      Halbritter Rechsteiner, Aud Helen; De Boeck, Hans J.; Eycott, Amy Elizabeth; Reinsch, Sabine; Robinson, David A.; Vicca, Sara; Berauer, Bernd; Christiansen, Casper Tai; Estiarte, Marc; Grünzweig, José M.; Gya, Ragnhild; Hansen, Karin; Jentsch, Anke; Lee, Hanna; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John; Peñuelas, Josep; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen; Wilfahrt, Peter; Vandvik, Vigdis; Abrantes, Nelson; Almagro, María; Althuizen, Inge; Barrio, Isabel C.; te Beest, Mariska; Beier, Claus; Beil, Iilka; Berry, Z. Carter; Birkemoe, Tone; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Blonder, Benjamin; Blume-Werry, Gesche; Bohrer, Gil; Campos, Isabel; Cernusak, Lucas S.; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Cosby, Bernhard J.; Dickman, Lee T.; Djukic, Ika; Filella, Iolanda; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Gillespie, Mark Andrew; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Gough, Christopher; Halliday, Fletcher W.; Hegland, Stein Joar; Hoch, Gunter; Holub, Petr; Jaroszynska, Francesca Orinda Holl; Johnson, Daniel M.; Jones, Scott B.; Kardol, Paul; Keizer, Jan J.; Klem, Karel; Konestabo, Heidi Sjursen; Kreyling, Jürgen; Kröel-Dulay, György; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Larsen, Klaus S.; Leblans, Niki; Lebron, Inma; Lehmann, Marco M.; Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Lenz, Armando; Linstädter, Anja; Llusià, Joan; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Malyshev, Andrey V.; Mänd, Pille; Marshall, Miles; Matheny, Ashley M.; McDowell, Nate; Meier, Ina C.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Michaletz, Sean T.; Miller, Megan L.; Muffler, Lena; Oravec, Michal; Ostonen, Ivika; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Preece, Catherine; Prentice, Iain C.; Radujković, Dajana; Ravolainen, Virve; Ribbons, Relena; Ruppert, Jan C.; Sack, Lawren; Sardans, Jordi; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Scoffoni, Christine; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Smart, Simon M; Smith, Stuart; Soper, Fiona; Speed, James David Mervyn; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Sydenham, Markus A. K.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Telford, Richard J.; Tielborger, Katja; Töpper, Joachim Paul; Urban, Otmar; van der Ploeg, Martine; Van Langenhove, Leandro; Večeřová, Kristýna; Ven, Arne; Verbruggen, Erik; Vik, Unni; Weigel, Robert; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Wood, Lauren K.; Zinnert, Julie; Zurba, Kamal (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      1. Climate change is a world-wide threat to biodiversity and ecosystem structure, functioning and services. To understand the underlying drivers and mechanisms, and to predict the consequences for nature and people, we ...
    • The importance of herbivore density and management as determinants of the distribution of rare plant species 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Herbivores are often drivers of ecosystem states and dynamics and in many situations are managed either as livestock or through controlled or exploitative hunting of wild populations. Changes in herbivore density can affect ...
    • The Response of Alpine Salix Shrubs to Long-Term Browsing Varies with Elevation and Herbivore Density 

      Speed, James David Mervyn; Austrheim, Gunnar; Hester, Alison J.; Mysterud, Atle (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      The widespread expansion of shrubs into arctic and alpine regions has frequently been linked to climatic warming, but herbivory can play a role in addition to, or in interaction with, climate. Willow (Salix spp.) shrubs ...