• Associations between school enjoyment at age 6 and later educational achievement: evidence from a UK cohort study 

      Morris, Tim T.; Dorling, Danny; Davies, Neil Martin; Smith, George Davey (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Education is influenced by a broad range of factors but there has been limited research into the role that early school enjoyment plays in pupil’s educational achievement. Here we used data from a UK cohort to answer three ...
    • Assortative mating and within-spouse pair comparisons 

      Howe, Laurence J.; Battram, Thomas; Morris, Tim T.; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Hemani, Gibran; Davies, Neil Martin; Smith, George Davey (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Spousal comparisons have been proposed as a design that can both reduce confounding and estimate effects of the shared adulthood environment. However, assortative mating, the process by which individuals select phenotypically ...
    • Avoiding dynastic, assortative mating, and population stratification biases in Mendelian randomization through within-family analyses 

      Brumpton, Ben Michael; Sanderson, Eleanor; Heilbron, Karl; Hartwig, FP; Harrison, S; Vie, Gunnhild Åberge; Cho, Y; Howe, LD; Hughes, A; Boomsma, D; Havdahl, Alexandra; Hopper, J; Neale, M; Nivard, Michel G.; Pedersen, N; Reynolds, CA; Tucker-D, EM; Grotzinger, A; Howe, Laurence; Morris, Tim; Li, Shuai; Within-Family Consortium, The; 23andMe Research Team, The; Auton, A; Windmeijer, F; Chen, W-M; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, C; Evans, DM; Kaprio, J; Davey Smith, G; Åsvold, BO; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Hemani, G; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Estimates from Mendelian randomization studies of unrelated individuals can be biased due to uncontrolled confounding from familial effects. Here we describe methods for within-family Mendelian randomization analyses and ...
    • Body mass index and childhood symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A within-family Mendelian randomization study 

      Hughes, Amanda M.; Sanderson, Eleanor; Morris, Tim; Ayorech, Ziada; Tesli, Martin Steen; Ask, Helga; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Andreassen, Ole; Magnus, Per Minor; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Davey Smith, George; Havdahl, Alexandra Karoline Saasen; Howe, Laura D.; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Background: Higher BMI in childhood is associated with emotional and behavioural problems, but these associations may not be causal. Results of previous genetic studies imply causal effects but may reflect influence of ...
    • Causal effect of children's secondary education on parental health outcomes: findings from a natural experiment in Botswana 

      Ludwig, Jan Ole; Davies, Neil Martin; Bor, Jacob; De Neve, Jan-Walter (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Objectives A growing literature highlights the intergenerational transmission of human capital from parents to children. However, far less is known about ‘upward transmission’ from children to parents. In this study, we ...
    • The causes and consequences of Alzheimer’s disease: phenome-wide evidence from Mendelian randomization 

      Korologou-Linden, Roxanna; Bhatta, Laxmi; Brumpton, Ben Michael; Howe, Laura D.; Millard, Louise A. C.; Kolaric, Katarina; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Williams, Dylan M.; Smith, George Davey; Anderson, Emma L.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no proven causal and modifiable risk factors, or effective interventions. We report a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of genetic liability for AD in 334,968 participants of the UK Biobank ...
    • Common health conditions in childhood and adolescence, school absence, and educational attainment: Mendelian randomization study 

      Hughes, Amanda; Wade, Kaitlin H; Dickson, Matt; Rice, Frances; Davies, Alisha R.; Davies, Neil Martin; Howe, Laura D. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Good health is positively related to children’s educational outcomes, but relationships may not be causal. Demonstrating a causal influence would strongly support childhood and adolescent health as important for education ...
    • Educational attainment, health outcomes and mortality: a within-sibship Mendelian randomization study 

      Howe, Laurence J; Rasheed, Humaira; Jones, Paul Remy; Boomsma, Dorret I; Evans, David M; Giannelis, Alexandros; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John L; Hughes, Amanda; Lahtinen, Hannu; Li, Shuai; Lind, Penelope A; Martin, Nicholas G; Martikainen, Pekka; Medland, Sarah E; Morris, Tim T; Nivard, Michel G; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Silventoinen, Karri; Smith, Jennifer A; Willoughby, Emily A; Wilson, James F; Ahlskog, Rafael; Andreassen, Ole; Ask, Helga; Campbell, Archie; Cheesman, Rosa Catherine Gillespie; Cho, Yoonsu; Christensen, Kaare; Corfield, Elizabeth Claire; Dahm, Christina C.; Havdahl, Alexandra; Hill, William D; Kerr, Shona M; Nygaard, Marianne Rodriguez; Palviainen, Teemu; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Southey, Melissa C; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Næss, Øyvind Erik; Davey Smith, George; Kaprio, Jaakko; Brumpton, Ben Michael; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2023)
      Background Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using population samples (population MR) have provided evidence for beneficial effects of educational attainment on health outcomes in adulthood. However, estimates ...
    • Effects of depression on employment and social outcomes: A Mendelian randomisation study 

      Campbell, Desmond; Green, Michael James; Davies, Neil Martin; Demou, Evangelia; Howe, Laura D.; Harrison, Sean; Smith, Daniel J.; Howard, David M.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Munafò, Marcus; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
    • Evaluating indirect genetic effects of siblings using singletons 

      Howe, Laurence J.; Evans, David M.; Hemani, Gibran; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Estimating effects of parental and sibling genotypes (indirect genetic effects) can provide insight into how the family environment influences phenotypic variation. There is growing molecular genetic evidence for effects ...
    • How do busy hospital circumstances affect mortality and readmission within 60 days: A cohort study of 680 000 acute admissions in Norway 

      Nilsen, Sara Marie; Asheim, Andreas; Carlsen, Fredrik; Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Vatten, Lars Johan; Aam, Stina; Davies, Neil Martin; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Objective To study mortality and readmissions for older patients admitted during more and less busy hospital circumstances. Design Cohort study where we identified patients that were admitted to the same hospital, ...
    • How to estimate heritability: a guide for genetic epidemiologists 

      Barry, Ciarra-Jane S; Walker, Venexia M.; Cheesman, Rosa Catherine Gillespie; Smith, George Davey; Morris, Tim T; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Background Traditionally, heritability has been estimated using family-based methods such as twin studies. Advancements in molecular genomics have facilitated the development of methods that use large samples of (unrelated ...
    • Impact of altering referral threshold from out-of-hours primary care to hospital on patient safety and further health service use: a cohort study 

      Svedahl, Ellen Rabben; Pape, Kristine; Austad, Bjarne; Vie, Gunnhild Åberge; Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Carlsen, Fredrik; Davies, Neil Martin; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Objectives To estimate the impact of altering referral thresholds from out-of-hours services on older patients’ further use of health services and risk of death. Design Cohort study using patient data from primary and ...
    • Implications of the genomic revolution for education research and policy 

      Morris, Tim T.; von Hinke, Stephanie; Pike, Lindsey; Ingram, Neil R.; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R.; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Research at the intersection of social science and genomics, ‘sociogenomics’, is transforming our understanding of the interplay between genomics, individual outcomes and society. It has interesting and maybe unexpected ...
    • Investigating how the accuracy of teacher expectations of pupil performance relate to socioeconomic and genetic factors 

      Barry, Ciarrah-Jane Shannon; Davies, Neil Martin; Morris, Tim T. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Teacher expectations of pupil ability can influence educational progression, impacting subsequent streaming and exam level. Systematic discrepancies between teacher expectations of pupil achievement may therefore have a ...
    • Little genomic support for Cyclophilin A-matrix metalloproteinase-9 pathway as a therapeutic target for cognitive impairment in APOE4 carriers 

      Anderson, Emma L.; Williams, Dylan M.; Walker, Venexia M.; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Therapeutic targets for halting the progression of Alzheimer’s disease pathology are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that APOE4, but not APOE3, activates the Cyclophilin-A matrix metalloproteinase-9 (CypA-MMP9) pathway, ...
    • Mendelian randomization for studying the effects of perturbing drug targets 

      Gill, Dipender; Georgakis, Marios K.; Walker, Venexia M.; Schmidt, Amand F.; Gkatzionis, Apostolos; Freitag, Daniel F.; Finan, Chris; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Howson, Joanna M.M.; Burgess, Stephen; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Davey Smith, George; Holmes, Michael V.; Dichgans, Martin; Scott, Robert A.; Zheng, Jie; Psaty, Bruce M.; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Drugs whose targets have genetic evidence to support efficacy and safety are more likely to be approved after clinical development. In this paper, we provide an overview of how natural sequence variation in the genes that ...
    • Polygenic and socioeconomic risk for high body mass index: 69 years of follow-up across life 

      Bann, David; Wright, Liam; Hardy, Rebecca; Williams, Dylan M.; Davies, Neil Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Genetic influences on body mass index (BMI) appear to markedly differ across life, yet existing research is equivocal and limited by a paucity of life course data. We thus used a birth cohort study to investigate differences ...
    • Population phenomena inflate genetic associations of complex social traits 

      Morris, Tim T; Davies, Neil Martin; Hemani, Gibran; Davey-Smith, George (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Heritability, genetic correlation, and genetic associations estimated from samples of unrelated individuals are often perceived as confirmation that genotype causes the phenotype(s). However, these estimates can arise from ...
    • Quantifying the causal impact of biological risk factors on healthcare costs 

      Lee, Jiwoo; Jukarainen, Sakari; Karvanen, Antti; Dixon, Padraig; Davies, Neil Martin; Smith, George Davey; Natarajan, Pradeep; Ganna, Andrea (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2023)
      Understanding the causal impact that clinical risk factors have on healthcare-related costs is critical to evaluate healthcare interventions. Here, we used a genetically-informed design, Mendelian Randomization (MR), to ...