• Bubble Evolution on Different Carbon Anode Designs in Cryolite Melt 

      Stanic, Nikolina; Jevremovic, Ivana; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sandnes, Espen (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      The anode potential has been shown to be highly dependent on anode geometry and orientation in the Hall–Héroult process. This work is an experimental laboratory scale study of the effect of anode geometry and orientation ...
    • Direct Method for Producing Scandium Metal and Scandium-Aluminium Intermetallic Compounds from the Oxides 

      Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Sommerseth, Camilla; Wang, Zhaohui; Darell, Ove (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The electrochemical de-oxidation process, also called FFC-Cambridge process, has been proposed previously to produce reactive metals and their alloys through reduction of their metal oxides. The process works by introducing ...
    • Electrochemical Behavior of Tin in Molten LiCl-KCl at 450 ℃ 

      Qin, Bo; Cui, Peng; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The electrochemical behavior of tin was studied with cyclic voltammetry at glassy carbon electrodes in the fused LiCl-KCl at 450 ℃. Metallic tin deposition on the glassy carbon electrode occurs at a potential of around ...
    • Electrode behaviors of Na-Zn liquid metal battery 

      Xu, Junli; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      The electroreduction processes on a Mo electrode in a Na-Zn liquid metal battery cell with a molten NaCl-CaCl2-ZnCl2 electrolyte were investigated at 565°C. The effect of the battery operating parameters on the loss rate ...
    • Electrodeposition of indium and tin from molten chloride electrolytes 

      Haarberg, Geir Martin; Qin, Bo; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      Recycling of electronic waste to recover the metal value is of prime importance, especially for metals with limited resources. An electrochemical approach should be an interesting option to develop sustainable recycling ...
    • Electrolysis of indium oxide in LiCl-KCl based molten salts with a liquid cathode 

      Cui, Peng; Qin, Bo; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      In this work, the feasibility of extracting of metallic indium from In2O3and ITO through the direct electrochemical reduction at 450°C in molten salt LiCl-KCl was studied. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to study the ...
    • Perfluorocarbon Formation During Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Sommerseth, Camilla; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Gaertner, Heiko; Chamelot, Pierre; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Massot, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A challenge during rare earth (RE) electrolysis is to avoid emissions of perfluorocarbon (PFC) green-house gases. The objective of this work was to study how to operate the RE electrolysis process with neither PFC formation ...
    • PFC evolution characteristics during aluminium and rare earth electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      In addition to aluminium electrolysis, the electrolysis of rare earth (RE) metals from fluoride melts is a significant source of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere. These processes have many similarities, ...
    • Removal and recovery of indium from ITO coated glass and scraps using molten salt electrolysis 

      Cui, Peng; Qin, Bo; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Indium is an important strategic resource due to the scarcity for the metal. In the present study, molten salt electrolysis is used to reduce indium from ITO coated glass and scraps in order to seek a new way to recycle ...