Acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: Evaluation of risk factors and mortality in a national cohort
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionBMJ Open. 2022, 12 (6), . 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059046
Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication among critical ill patients with COVID-19, but the actual incidence is unknown as AKI-incidence varies from 25% to 89% in intensive care unit (ICU) populations. We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of AKI in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU in Norway. Design Nation-wide observational study with data sampled from the Norwegian Intensive Care and Pandemic Registry (NIPaR) for the period between 10 March until 31 December 2020. Setting ICU patients with COVID-19 in Norway. NIPaR collects data on intensive care stays covering more than 90% of Norwegian ICU and 98% of ICU stays. Participants Adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to Norwegian ICU were included in the study. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were excluded in order to avoid bias from CKD on the incidence of AKI. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was AKI at ICU admission as defined by renal Simplified Acute Physiology Score in NIPaR. Secondary outcome measures included survival at 30 and 90 days after admission to hospital. Results A total number of 361 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. AKI was present in 32.0% of the patients at ICU admission. The risk for AKI at ICU admission was related to acute circulatory failure at admission to hospital. Survival for the study population at 30 and 90 days was 82.5% and 77.6%, respectively. Cancer was a predictor of 30-day mortality. Age, acute circulatory failure at hospital admission and AKI at ICU admission were predictors of both 30-day and 90-day mortality. Conclusions A high number of patients with COVID-19 had AKI at ICU admission. The study indicates that AKI at ICU admission was related to acute circulatory failure at hospital admission. Age, acute circulatory failure at hospital admission and AKI at ICU admission were associated with mortality.