Physical model study on discharge over a dam due to landslide generatedwaves
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionWater. 2020, 12 (1), 1-19. 10.3390/w12010234
Impulse waves generated by landslides falling into reservoirs may lead to overtopping of a dam and, in turn, to flooding of the downstream area. In the case of an embankment dam, the overtopping may lead to erosion of the downstream slope, ultimately resulting in breaching and complete failure with consequent further hazardous release of water to the downstream area. This research deals with the overtopping process of a dam due to landslide generated waves in a three-dimensional (3D) physical scale model setup. Experiments have been conducted with varying the slide, reservoir, and dam parameters. The primary focus is on investigating the feasibility of employing the steady state weir equation in order to predict the overtopping discharge over a dam crest due to landslide generated waves. Calibration and validation of the coefficient of discharge values for the different dam section are conducted for the specified model setup. Accordingly, a two-step calculation procedure is presented for predicting the overtopping discharge based on the maximum overtopping depth values. Hence, for the fixed setup, which includes a constant slope angle of the landslide surface, a predictive equation for maximum overtopping depth is proposed, based on slide volume, slide release height, still water depth, upstream dam slope angle, and dam height. The relative slide volume and relative still water depth both seem to have a significant effect on the relative overtopping depth.