Generation of micro- and nano-textured surfaces
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Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is one promising method to generate textures resulting in a different surface appearance. Texture can be generated by concentrating on the nanoscale or microscale. At the nanoscale, some inherent attributes of the appearance of materials, such as color, can be various. For instance, gold nanoparticles of different sizes less than 100 nm have different colors. However, working at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena can result in new properties and applications, requires different levels of equipment and considerations. Embedding nanoparticles in the substrate and controlling appearance attributes based on nanosubstances dispersed in the feedstock materials requires on-demand access to a wide range of laboratory facilities. Due to COVID-19, planned access to nano-labs, nano-contained feedstocks, and related equipment in other selected partners in the project has been hugely restricted. Therefore, the surface textures have been generated in-situ at the microscale, and appearance is mainly investigated based on the microscale phenomena at the nanoscale spectral measurements. Microscale repetitive layers in the 3D printed surface texture are intrinsic features of AM technology. The layer pattern plays a vital role in the appearance attributes of the surface, including color, gloss, and translucency. The wedge angle in the design process, as well as processing parameters including infill density, the feedstock material, layer thickness, and the slicing method, affect the formation of the layers. It results in the generation of different textures. The main work at microscale study described a method to modify the color appearance of the 3D printed surface by controlling surface texture focusing on the pre-processing stage for PLA filaments. It is revealed that optimizing pre-processing parameters can generate surfaces at specific wedge angles with a minimal color difference compared to flat surfaces. This report provides a brief explanation of the generation of the surveyed surfaces according to the main work. A paper has been submitted based on the findings of this study . For more information regarding the results, please contact the ApPEARS consortium.