Cyber Risk Perception in the Maritime Domain: A Systematic Literature Review
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionIEEE Access. 2021, 9 144895-144905. 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3122433
This paper aims to present an approach to investigate cyber risk perception with use of recognized psychological models, and to give an overview of state-of-the-art research within the field of cyber risk perception in general and in the context of the maritime domain. The focus will be on determinative dimensions within the psychometric paradigm and cognitive biases, and to give recommendations on further research within these fields. Okoli and Schabram’s eight-step guide to plan, select, extract, and execute a systematic literature review is used as guidance. The search process resulted in 25 relevant articles which describes 24 dimensions of cyber risk perception in different online environments. Research within the area of maritime cyber security is increasing, however, no studies relevant for our literature review were found within the maritime domain. The nine dimensions in the psychometric model, perceived benefit and the optimistic bias is presented and discussed in a maritime context. Cyber risk perception is a complex research-area where both determinative factors and other cognitive processes can be influenced by each other. This can indicate that the dimensions differ across populations and professions, creating grounds for why context-specific studies are important. Further research may benefit from more multidisciplinary, descriptive, and inductive approaches, and contextual studies within maritime cyber risk perception can contribute to develop targeted tools for risk mitigation to enhance safety at sea.