A Novel Edge-to-Cloud-as-a-Service (E2CaaS) Model for Building Software Services in Smart Cities
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The main goal of a smart city is to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants by providing services using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) components in a city. ICT components include not only Internet of Things (IoT) data sources spread across the city, but also traditional non-IoT data sources. Managing all ICT components in a smart city can be challenging and results in many complexities. Consequently, there is a need for ICT management architectures. Traditional solutions are often based on a centralized ICT architecture using Cloud technologies. Recently, the number of ICT components, services, and their corresponding complexities are growing, leading to large-scale ICT architectures. Centralized Cloud solutions cannot cope with the ever-expanding demands of this kind of architectures. The limitations of the centralized approaches necessitate the design of a new ICT architecture, using distributed technologies, for every layer and element of the city. Many solutions for management from Edge-to-Cloud (E2C) through distributed technologies are forthcoming, including Decentralized-to-Centralized ICT (DC2C-ICT) and Distributed-to-Centralized ICT (D2C-ICT) architectures. The DC2C-ICT architecture and its components work on their own tasks and are solely communicating with a centralized platform. On the other hand, components of the D2C-ICT architecture can work together to provide the services for the citizens across different layers from E2C. Therefore, the D2CICT architecture is less dependent on the central Cloud-based entity, but harder to design and manage. In this paper, an “Edge-to-Cloud-as-a-Service (E2CaaS) ” model is proposed together with a model on how to build efficient software services in smart cities through different layers of E2C. The most important tasks for building these services are the management of“Data/Database,” “Resources,” and “Network Communication and Cybersecurity issues”.