Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorGomez-Gonzalez, Carlos
dc.contributor.authorDietl, Helmut
dc.contributor.authorNesseler, Cornel Maria
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Psychology. 2020, .en_US
dc.description.abstractDecisions often reflect implicit biases. Ethnic, racial, and gender traits are associated with stereotypes that may influence the decision-making process. Previous research shows that referees’ decisions in men’s professional sports are often biased in favor of racial and nationalistic in-groups. This study examined if similar biases exist in women’s professional sports. Additionally, this study analyzed the potential influence of the gender composition of referee teams on rapid decisions. We gathered data on referee foul calls in women’s professional basketball in Spain, 2014–2019 and defined important decisions (fifth fouls) and stressful situations (one-possession matches). The main finding is that out-groups based on racial (i.e., Black players) and nationalistic (i.e., foreign players) criteria did not differ in number of foul calls received. In stressful situations, foreign players actually received fewer fouls than Spanish players. Similarly, there was no evidence of bias due to the gender composition of referee teams: foul calls did not differ between all-male and mixed teams. Implications for race and nationality as dynamic social constructs within ethnocentric and social identity theories are discussed.en_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleUnbiased Decisions Among Women’s Basketball Refereesen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalFrontiers in Psychologyen_US
dc.description.localcodeCopyright © 2020 Gomez-Gonzalez, Dietl and Nesseler. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en_US

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal