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dc.contributor.authorKrakhella, Kjersti Wergeland
dc.contributor.authorMorales, Marjorie
dc.contributor.authorBock, Robert
dc.contributor.authorSeland, Frode
dc.contributor.authorBurheim, Odne Stokke
dc.contributor.authorEinarsrud, Kristian Etienne
dc.identifier.citationEnergies. 2020, 13 (5), 1247-?.en_US
dc.description.abstractReverse electrodialysis and electrodialysis can be combined into a closed energy storage system, allowing for storing surplus energy through a salinity difference between two solutions. A closed system benefits from simple temperature control, the ability to use higher salt concentrations and mitigation of membrane fouling. In this work, the permselectivity of two membranes from Fumatech, FAS-50 and FKS-50, is found to be ranging from 0.7 to 0.5 and from 0.8 to 0.7 respectively. The maximum unit cell open-circuit voltage was measured to be 115 ± 9 mV and 118 ± 8 mV at 25 ∘ C and 40 ∘ C, respectively, and the power density was found to be 1.5±0.2 W m −2uc at 25 ∘ C and 2.0±0.3 W m −2uc at 40 ∘ C. Given a lifetime of 10 years, three hours of operation per day and 3% downtime, the membrane price can be 2.5 ± 0.3 $ m −2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 $ m −2 to match the energy price in the EU and the USA, respectively. A life-cycle analysis was conducted for a storage capacity of 1 GWh and 2 h of discharging. The global warming impact is 4.53 ⋅105 kg CO2 equivalents/MWh and the cumulative energy demand is 1.61 ⋅103 MWh/MWh, which are 30% and 2 times higher than a lithium-ion battery pack with equivalent capacity, respectively. An electrodialytic energy storage system reaches a comparable global warming impact and a lower cumulative energy demand than a lithium-ion battery for an average life span of 20 and 3 years, respectively.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleElectrodialytic Energy Storage System: Permselectivity, Stack Measurements and Life-Cycle Analysisen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.description.localcodeThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US

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