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dc.contributor.authorWade, Kaitlin H
dc.contributor.authorCarslake, David
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Tom Ivar Lund
dc.contributor.authorTimpson, Nicholas J.
dc.contributor.authorDavey Smith, George
dc.contributor.authorRomundstad, Pål Richard
dc.identifier.citationScientific Reports. 2015, 5 .en_US
dc.description.abstractGiven that observational associations may be inaccurate, we used offspring blood pressure (BP) to provide alternative estimates of the associations between own BP and mortality. Observational associations between BP and mortality, estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression, were compared to HRs obtained using offspring BP as an instrumental variable (IV) for own BP (N = 32,227 mother-offspring and 27,535 father-offspring pairs). Observationally, there were positive associations between own BP and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes. Point estimates of the associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD were amplified in magnitude when using offspring BP as an IV. For example, the HR for all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) increase in own systolic BP (SBP) obtained in conventional observational analyses increased from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.09–1.12; P < 0.0001) to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19–1.43; P < 0.0001). Additionally, SBP was positively associated with diabetes and cancer mortality (HRs: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.12–3.35; P = 0.02 and 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03, respectively) and diastolic BP (DBP) with stroke mortality (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02–1.66; P = 0.03). Results support positive associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD, SBP on cancer mortality and DBP on stroke mortality.en_US
dc.publisherNature Researchen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleBlood pressure and mortality: using offspring blood pressure as an instrument for own blood pressure in the HUNT studyen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.source.journalScientific Reportsen_US
dc.description.localcodeDOi: 10.1038/srep12399. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Com-mons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license older to reproduce the material.To view a copy of this license, visit

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