Exploring the distribution patterns of Flickr photos
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2019, 8 (9), . 10.3390/ijgi8090418
In recent years, volunteered-geographic-information (VGI) image data have served as a data source for various geographic applications, attracting researchers to assess the quality of these images. However, these applications and quality assessments are generally focused on images associated with geolocation through textual annotations, which is only part of valid images to them. In this paper, we explore the distribution pattern for most relevant VGI images of specific landmarks to extend the current quality analysis, and to provide guidance for improving the data-retrieval process of geographic applications. Distribution is explored in terms of two aspects, namely, semantic distribution and spatial distribution. In this paper, the term semantic distribution is used to describe the matching of building-image tags and content with each other. There are three kinds of images (semantic-relevant and content-relevant, semantic-relevant but content-irrelevant, and semantic-irrelevant but content-relevant). Spatial distribution shows how relevant images are distributed around a landmark. The process of this work can be divided into three parts: data filtering, retrieval of relevant landmark images, and distribution analysis. For semantic distribution, statistical results show that an average of 60% of images tagged with the building’s name actually represents the building, while 69% of images depicting the building are not annotated with the building’s name. There was also an observation that for most landmarks, 97% of relevant building images were located within 300 m around the building in terms of spatial distribution.