Case Study of Dam Overtopping from Waves Generated by Landslides Impinging Perpendicular to a Reservoir’s Longitudinal Axis
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2019, 7 (7), 1-19. 10.3390/jmse7070221
Landslide-generated impulse waves in dammed reservoirs run up the reservoir banks as well as the upstream dam slope. If large enough, the waves may overtop and even breach the dam and cause flooding of the downstream area with hazardous consequences. Hence, for reservoirs in landslide-prone areas, it is important to provide a means to estimate the potential size of an event triggered by landslides along the reservoir banks. This research deals with landslide-generated waves and the overtopping process over the dam crest in a three-dimensional (3D) physical model test, presenting a case study. The model set-up describes the landslide impacting the reservoir in a perpendicular manner, which is often the case in natural settings. Based on the experimental results, dimensionless empirical relations are derived between the overtopping volume and the governing parameters, namely the slide volume, slide release height, slide impact velocity, still-water depth, and upstream dam face slope. Predictive relations for the overtopping volume are presented as applicable for cases relating to the specific model set-up. Measured overtopping volumes are further compared to a two-dimensional (2D) case reported in the literature. An important feature regarding the overtopping process for the 3D case is the variation in time and space, resulting in an uneven distribution of the volume of water overtopping the dam crest. This observation is made possible by the 3D model set-up, and is of value for dam safety considerations as well as for foundation-related issues, including erosion and scouring.