Offshore turbines with bottom-fixed or floating substructures
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Wind turbines have been applied offshore since 1991, when the first offshore wind farm in Vindeby, Denmark was commissioned. According to GEWEC, by the end of 2018, about 23,140 MW of cumulative offshore wind capacity has been installed, with the majority installed in the United Kingdom (7.96 GW), Germany (6.38 GW), and China (4.59 GW). Recent auctions in Europe with subsidy-free winning bids mean that offshore wind can be produced economically at a market price, making offshore wind one of the most economic sources of renewable energy, and it is expected that the capacity will grow to 100-120 GW by 2030.