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dc.contributor.authorNordvik, Rune
dc.contributor.authorGeorges, Henry
dc.contributor.authorToolan, Fergus
dc.contributor.authorAxelsson, Stefan
dc.identifier.citationDigital Investigation. The International Journal of Digital Forensics and Incident Response. 2019, 30 (September), 127-147.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractFile system forensics is an important part of Digital Forensics. Investigators of storage media have traditionally focused on the most commonly used file systems such as NTFS, FAT, ExFAT, Ext2-4, HFS+, APFS, etc. NTFS is the current file system used by Windows for the system volume, but this may change in the future. In this paper we will show the structure of the Resilient File System (ReFS), which has been available since Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. The main purpose of ReFS is to be used on storage spaces in server systems, but it can also be used in Windows 8 or newer. Although ReFS is not the current standard file system in Windows, while users have the option to create ReFS file systems, digital forensic investigators need to investigate the file systems identified on a seized media. Further, we will focus on remnants of non-allocated metadata structures or attributes. This may allow metadata carving, which means searching for specific attributes that are not allocated. Attributes found can then be used for file recovery. ReFS uses superblocks and checkpoints in addition to a VBR, which is different from other Windows file systems. If the partition is reformatted with another file system, the backup superblocks can be used for partition recovery. Further, it is possible to search for checkpoints in order to recover both metadata and content. Another concept not seen for Windows file systems, is the sharing of blocks. When a file is copied, both the original and the new file will share the same content blocks. If the user changes the copy, new data runs will be created for the modified content, but unchanged blocks remain shared. This may impact file carving, because part of the blocks previously used by a deleted file might still be in use by another file. The large default cluster size, 64 KiB, in ReFS v1.2 is an advantage when carving for deleted files, since most deleted files are less than 64 KiB and therefore only use a single cluster. For ReFS v3.2 this advantage has decreased because the standard cluster size is 4 KiB. Preliminary support for ReFS v1.2 has been available in EnCase 7 and 8, but the implementation has not been documented or peer-reviewed. The same is true for Paragon Software, which recently added ReFS support to their forensic product. Our work documents how ReFS v1.2 and ReFS v3.2 are structured at an abstraction level that allows digital forensic investigation of this new file system. At the time of writing this paper, Paragon Software is the only digital forensic tool that supports ReFS v3.x. It is the most recent version of the ReFS file system that is most relevant for digital forensics, as Windows automatically updates the file system to the latest version on mount. This is why we have included information about ReFS v3.2. However, it is possible to change a registry value to avoid updating. The latest ReFS version observed is 3.4, but the information presented about 3.2 is still valid. In any criminal case, the investigator needs to investigate the file system version found.nb_NO
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleReverse engineering of ReFSnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.source.journalDigital Investigation. The International Journal of Digital Forensics and Incident Responsenb_NO
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 248094/O70nb_NO
dc.description.localcode© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for informasjonssikkerhet og kommunikasjonsteknologi

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal