Ranking of substances for monitoring in foods, drinks and dietary supplements - based on risk and knowledge gaps
Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Husøy, Trine; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Mathisen, Gro Haarklou; Ørnsrud, Robin; Agdestein, Angelika; Bodin, Johanna Eva; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Hessen, Dag Olav; Hofshagen, Merete; Krogdahl, Åshild; Nilsen, Asbjørn Magne; Rafoss, Trond; Skjerdal, Olaug Taran; Velle, Gaute; Wasteson, Yngvild; Hemre, Gro Ingunn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Alexander, Jan
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The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) to provide an overview of substances in foods, drinks and dietary supplements that may constitute a potential health risk for humans, based on the VKM members’ expert judgements. VKM was further requested to perform a ranking of these substances. Additionally, VKM should give an overiview of the foods, drinks and dietary supplements most relevant for monitoring, and describe what would be the adequate sampling procedure and number of samples. Monitoring procedures were included to ensure that the monitoring performed is representative for the occurrence of the substances in foods, drinks and/or dietary supplements consumed by the Norwegian population. The substances requested to be included were food additives and flavourings, substances used in food contact materials, environmental contaminants, process-induced substances and natural toxins. Substances not to be included were veterinary medicine residues, illegal pharmaceuticals and pesticide residues. The overview provided by VKM included substances belong to the following groups and subgroups of substances: • Natural toxins; with the sub-groups mycotoxins, plant toxins, marine and freshwater algae toxins • Metals and metalloids • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs); with the sub-groups brominated flame retardants, dechloranes, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and siloxanes • Substances in food contact materials; with the sub-groups bisphenols and phthalates • Flavourings • Additives; with the sub-groups nitrites and nitrates, phosphates, sweeteners and synthetic antioxidants • Process-induced contaminants; with the sub-groups acrylamide, esterified 3- and 2- monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD), glycidyl fatty esters (GEs), furans, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) • «Other substances» • Trace elements The ranking of the substances is based on inherent toxicity (hazard) and level of exposure (both occurrence and intake). In addition, vulnerable groups, adequacy of toxicity data and lack of exposure data were considered. A simple methodology was chosen. More advanced methodology may be used in later updates of this ranking, if found useful.