In Vitro and in Silico Competitive Binding of Brominated Polyphenyl Ether Contaminants with Human and Gull Thyroid Hormone Transport Proteins
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionEnvironmental Science and Technology. 2018, 52 (3), 1533-1541. 10.1021/acs.est.7b04617
Tetradecabromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene (TeDB-DiPhOBz) is a highly brominated additive flame retardant (FR). Debrominated photodegradates of TeDB-DiPhOBz are hydroxylated in vitro in liver microsomal assays based on herring gulls (Larus argentatus), including one metabolite identified as 4″-OH-2,2′,2″,4-tetrabromo-DiPhOBz. Chemically related methoxylated tetra- to hexabromo-DiPhOBzs are known contaminants in herring gulls. Collectively, nothing is currently known about biological effects of these polybrominated (PB) DiPhOBz-based compounds. The present study investigated the potential thyroidogenicity of 2,2′,2″,4-tetrabromo-(TB)-DiPhOBz along with its para-methoxy (MeO)- and hydroxy-(OH)-analogues, using an in vitro competitive protein binding assay with the human thyroid hormone (TH) transport proteins transthyretin (hTTR) and albumin (hALB). This model para-OH-TB-DiPhOBz was found to be capable of competing with thyroxine (T4) for the binding site on hTTR and hALB. In silico analyses were also conducted using a 3D homology model for gull TTR, to predict whether these TB-DiPhOBz-based compounds may also act as ligands for an avian TH transport protein despite evolutionary differences with hTTR. This analysis found all three TB-DiPhOBz analogues to be potential ligands for gull TTR and have similar binding efficacies to THs. Results indicate structure-related differences in binding affinities of these ligands and suggest there is potential for these contaminants to interact with both mammalian and avian thyroid function.