The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Geriatric Depression scale-5 in home-dwelling old adults in Norway
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Affective Disorders.2019, 256,380-385 10.1016/j.jad.2019.05.049
Background Little is known about the validity of the Norwegian versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale-5 (GDS-5) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D (HADS-D). The aim of this study was therefor to validate the two assessment tools in a population of home-dwelling persons of 60 years of age and above. Methods A sample of 194 home-dwelling old adults with and without depressive symptoms were recruited. The participants were examined for depressive symptoms (GDS-5, HADS-D) and cognitive impairment. Sociodemographic information was collected. The participants underwent a blinded diagnostic evaluation for a depressive episode according to the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10. Results In all, 56 (28.9%) participants fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode according to ICD-10. The Receiver Operating Characteristics analyses of HAD-D and GDS-5 using the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 for depression as gold standard was performed. For GDS-5 the Areal under the Curve was 0.81 and for HAD-D 0.75. The cut-off points of the measures that produced the highest accuracies were ≥2 for GDS-5 with a sensitivity of 73.2% and a specificity of 73.2% and ≥4 for HADS-D with a sensitivity of 70.3% and a specificity of 69.6%. Limitations A larger sample would have given the opportunity for analyzing home dwelling old adults with and without home health care separately. The participants were talked through the self-filling questionnaires. The procedure could have influenced the participants’ answers. Conclusion GDS-5 and HADS-D are useful screening tools for old adults, but only fairly good to identify depression according to criteria of ICD-10.