PedNet: A Spatio-Temporal Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Pedestrian Segmentation
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Imaging. 2018, 4 (9), . 10.3390/jimaging4090107
Articulation modeling, feature extraction, and classification are the important components of pedestrian segmentation. Usually, these components are modeled independently from each other and then combined in a sequential way. However, this approach is prone to poor segmentation if any individual component is weakly designed. To cope with this problem, we proposed a spatio-temporal convolutional neural network named PedNet which exploits temporal information for spatial segmentation. The backbone of the PedNet consists of an encoder–decoder network for downsampling and upsampling the feature maps, respectively. The input to the network is a set of three frames and the output is a binary mask of the segmented regions in the middle frame. Irrespective of classical deep models where the convolution layers are followed by a fully connected layer for classification, PedNet is a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN). It is trained end-to-end and the segmentation is achieved without the need of any pre- or post-processing. The main characteristic of PedNet is its unique design where it performs segmentation on a frame-by-frame basis but it uses the temporal information from the previous and the future frame for segmenting the pedestrian in the current frame. Moreover, to combine the low-level features with the high-level semantic information learned by the deeper layers, we used long-skip connections from the encoder to decoder network and concatenate the output of low-level layers with the higher level layers. This approach helps to get segmentation map with sharp boundaries. To show the potential benefits of temporal information, we also visualized different layers of the network. The visualization showed that the network learned different information from the consecutive frames and then combined the information optimally to segment the middle frame. We evaluated our approach on eight challenging datasets where humans are involved in different activities with severe articulation (football, road crossing, surveillance). The most common CamVid dataset which is used for calculating the performance of the segmentation algorithm is evaluated against seven state-of-the-art methods. The performance is shown on precision/recall, F1, F2, and mIoU. The qualitative and quantitative results show that PedNet achieves promising results against state-of-the-art methods with substantial improvement in terms of all the performance metrics.