Dietary Intakes and Dietary Quality during Pregnancy in Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus-A Norwegian Longitudinal Study
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with maternal diet, however, findings are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to assess whether intakes of foods and beverages during pregnancy differed between women who developed GDM and non-GDM women, and to compare dietary intakes with dietary recommendations of pregnancy. This is a nested case-control study within a randomized controlled trial. Women with complete measurements of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 18⁻22 and 32⁻36 weeks gestation were included in the cohort (n = 702). Women were diagnosed for GDM according to the simplified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria at 32⁻36 weeks (GDM women: n = 40; non-GDM women: n = 662). Dietary data (food frequency questionnaire) was collected at both time points and compared between GDM and non-GDM women. Variability in OGTT values was assessed in a general linear model. Marginal differences between GDM and non-GDM women in intakes of food groups were found. No associations were found between dietary variables and OGTT values. Not all dietary recommendations were followed in the cohort, with frequently reported alcohol consumption giving largest cause for concern. This study did not find dietary differences that could help explain why 40 women developed GDM.