Implementation of pedagogical principles into the software design process of e-learning applications
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E-learning in higher education faces challenges related to variation and personalization, after a decade of attention to learning objects and computer-supported collaboration. The main objective of the thesis is to investigate how to assure the quality of the development process of e-learning applications by the implementation of pedagogical principles into the software design process. Specifically this includes the pedagogical principles of individualization, variation, meta-learning and best practice. This thesis contributes to the field of e-learning by four main contributions (C1-C4): C1: Design pattern-based wizards to implement best practice The first main contribution of the thesis is the idea of using pedagogical design patterns as a basis for the development of wizards in e-learning applications. Design patterns are archetypes on well-used solutions and enable the implementation of best practice and the expertise of experienced online teachers into the application. In the process of a pedagogical and technological configuration of an application, the design pattern-based wizard provides an interface presenting pedagogical opportunities, hints and comments to novice online teachers.C2: The E-learning Circle The E-learning Circle is a software design tool, assuring the quality of the design process of e-learning applications, focusing on variation, individualization and meta-learning. It consists of a number of concentric circles, which are divided into three sectors; student, teacher and learning objectives. The inner circles cover pedagogical considerations, while the outer circles specify how the pedagogical theories may be implemented with technology. The strengths of the E-learning Circle are the compact presentation combined with the overview it provides. It is also useful in dealing with complexity, providing a common language and embedding best practice. The E-learning Circle is not a prescriptive method, but is useful in several design models and processes. It represents a holistic approach to the design of e-learning applications and prevents the overexposure of e.g. learning objects or assessment in an e-learning system.C3: The E-learning ontology The E-learning ontology is a contribution to the need of a formal representation of a set of concepts and the relationships between those concepts within the e-learning field. This is necessary when planning to use topic maps as a HCI-solution within e-learning. The E-learning ontology suggests a representation of topics useful for developing topic maps and illustrates an approach how to develop personalized e-learning applications.C4: The PLExus prototype The PLExus prototype is a working prototype of a personal learning environment based on the semantic technology of topic maps. PLExus provides a student interface allowing customized views of learning objects and learning activities. The customized views are mainly based on pedagogical methods, learning objective types and proficiency stages. PLExus provides a wizard for the teacher in the process of adding and structuring learning objects into the topic map. The research method of this thesis is Grounded Theory. This inductive, theory discovering approach allows the grounding of theory in empirical data and is appropriate for the exploratory nature of this thesis. The empirical data of the thesis were collected through 21 interviews, three focus groups, and three expert groups.
Består avKolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid. Implementing pedagogical methods by using pedagogical design patterns. Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications: 5304-5309, 2004.
Saatz, Inga; Kolås, Line. Support for the instructor - from technical to pedagogical point of view. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, 2005.
Kolås, Line. Variation and reusability in e-learning: not compatible?. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education, 2005.
Kolås, Line. Topic maps in e-learning: An ontology ensuring an active student role as producer. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education, 2006.
Kolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid. The PLExus Prototype: A PLE realized as Topic Maps. Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies: 750-752, 2007. 10.1109/ICALT.2007.247.
Kolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid. A Personalized E-learning Interface. The Proceedings of the international IEEE Conference on Computer as a tool: 2670-2675, 2007. 10.1109/EURCON.2007.4400362.
Kolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid; Temperini, Marco; Sterbini, Andrea. The QUIS Requirement Specification of a Next generation E-learning System. IADIS International conference proceedings E-learning 2007 - (part of MCCSIS 2007) Volume II: 188-193, 2007.
Kofod-Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Sobah Abbas; Bye, Gunhild Griff; Kolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid. Learning in an Ambient Intelligent Environment - Towards Modelling Learners through Stereotypes. Revue d'intelligence artificielle - Revue des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information. (ISSN 0992-499X). 22(5): 569-588, 2008. 10.3166/ria.22.569-588.
Kolås, Line; Staupe, Arvid. The E-learning Circle – A holistic software design tool for e-learning. E-learning and Education. (ISSN 1860-7470), 2010.