Advanced glycation end products in children with type 1 diabetes and early reduced diastolic heart function
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2017, 17 (133). 10.1186/s12872-017-0551-0
Background Reduced diastolic function is an early sign of diabetes cardiomyopathy in adults and is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Objective To assess the associations between early reduced diastolic function and elevated levels of HbA1c and AGEs in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods One hundred fourty six T1D patients (age 8–18 years) without known diabetic complications were examined with tissue Doppler imaging and stratified into two groups according to diastolic function. A clinical examination and ultrasound of the common carotid arteries were performed. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 (MG-H1) was measured by immunoassay. Results At inclusion, 36 (25%) participants were stratified into a low diastolic function group (E’/A’-ratio < 2.0). Compared to the rest of the T1D children, these participants had higher body mass index (BMI), 22.8 (SD = 4.0) vs. 20.1 (SD = 3.4) kg/m2, p < 0.001, higher systolic blood pressure 104.2 (SD = 8.7) vs. 99.7 (SD = 9.3) mmHg, p = 0.010, and higher diastolic blood pressure, 63.6 (SD = 8.3) vs. 59.9 (SD = 7.9) mmHg, p = 0.016. The distensibility coefficient was lower, 0.035 (SD = 0.010) vs. 0.042 (SD = 0.02) kPa−1, p = 0.013, Young’s modulus higher, 429 (SD = 106) vs. 365 (SD = 143), p = 0.009, and MG-H1 higher, 163.9 (SD = 39.2) vs. 150.3 (SD = 33.4) U/ml, p = 0.046. There was no difference in carotid intima-media thickness between the groups. There were no associations between reduced diastolic function and years from diagnosis, HBA1c, mean HBA1c, CRP or calculated glycemic burden. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for E’/A’-ratio as well as a non-significant, but relatively large effect size for MG-H1, indicating a possible role for AGEs. Conclusions Early signs of reduced diastolic function in children and adolescents with T1D had higher BMI, but not higher HbA1c. They also had elevated serum levels of the advanced glycation end product MG-H1, higher blood pressure and increased stiffness of the common carotid artery, but these associations did not reach statistical significance when tested in a logistic regression model.