Prognostic expectations as a predictor of neurofeedback training efficacy
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- Institutt for psykologi 
Previous research on neurofeedback has reported positive changes in behaviour and cognitive abilities in both clinical and normal populations. However, the growing evidence from placebocontrolled studies in the literature calls into question whether such improvement is neurofeedback specific, or simply due to a placebo effect. The present study contributes to this question by testing whether neurofeedback efficacy can be predicted by subjects’ expectations, by controlling the expectancy effect as a statistical variable. Twenty-three psychology students were recruited and underwent neurofeedback training, employing beta/theta protocol that aimed to enhance beta1 power (13-21Hz) and suppress theta (4-7 Hz) power. Neurofeedback efficacy was evaluated by behavioural components measured on pre-post-tests employing a visual continuous performance task (VCPT). The results revealed a significant reduction of reaction time (RT). No significant differences were found for reaction time variability (RVT), nor for the amount of omission and commission. No evidence was found that a significant reduction of RT could be predicted by either expectancy or actual neurofeedback performance. Possible factors that could have contributed to the results are discussed, and directions for future research are indicated.