Nutritional and functional Properties of fishemal produced from fresh by-Products of cod (Gadus morhua L.) and saithe (Pollachius virens)
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionHeliyon. 2017, 3 1-17. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00343
Fresh by-products of whitefish such as cod and saithe is processed to fishmeal (FM) on-board seagoing Norwegian trawlers. The aim of this study was to document the properties of whitefish FM (WFM) protein with respect to, physicochemical and bioactive properties. Analysis of the proximate composition of representative seasonal WFM batches show that the production is robust without much variance. The mean protein (61.9 ± 1.2), fat (8.9 ± 1.1%), moisture (5 ± 1.2%) and ash content (22.4 ± 0.8%), reflect the use of lean and bony raw-material. The WFM has a low content of free amino acids (0.7%) and biogenic amines (< 1000 mg/kg) that confirm the high quality and freshness of the raw material. Amino-acid analysis identified the presence of all nutritionally essential amino acids. The WFM physicochemical properties was comparable to soy-bean meal (SBM) by analysis of solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), the emulsion stability (ES). Proteolytic degradation of the WFM was used to demonstrate the presence of bioactive peptides with inhibiting activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, in vitro. Taken together, WFM produced from fresh by-products is an excellent protein source with attributes of interest beyond the aquafeed-market.