Evaluation of low-temperature synthesis gas separation concepts for CO2 capture in IGCC power plants
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Background and objectiveIncreased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from anthropogenic emissions are believed to contribute to undesirable climate change, with irreversible environmental changes as a possible outcome. Carbon dioxide, methane and halocarbons are among the most important contributing gases.Fossil fuels will be needed in decades to come, even with optimistic phase-in scenarios for renewables and increased energy efficiency. According to IPCC, CO2 emissions must be reduced with 50 85% within the next 50 years compared to the business-as-usual scenario, in order to confine increased global warming to a temperature increase between 2 and 2.4°C above pre-industrial levels. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) from power production and industrial point sources is then looked upon as a necessary contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 20% of the required reductions are expected to come from CCS /IEA/. A tremendous R&D effort has been initiated in finding energy- and cost-efficient solutions. In many of the technologies under development refrigeration may form vital elements.Pre-combustion capture, as indicated by the wording, is related to capture of the CO2 before combustion. H2 from a shifted synthesis gas is used as fuel in a gas turbine. Refrigeration technologies may be used for CO2 capture from the shifted synthesis gas as an alternative to the physical solvent based concepts more commonly considered today. SINTEF Energy Research has performed initial studies of low temperature concepts and found very promising results with respect to specific power consumption of CO2 capture and compression as a part the EU-project DECARBit.The work of the master thesis will investigate low-temperature concepts with capture rates up to at least 85% carbon capture rate more in detail based on available work performed at SINTEF and information found in literature. Further, concepts for integration with H2S removal will be investigated.The following elements should be considered in the project work:1. Review of available information and shortly summarise this2. Develop a detailed principal steady-state process design model in the process simulator HYSYS for a plant with a CO2 capture rate of up to at least 85%. The model will be based on a simplified pinch analysis model already developed at SINTEF. The model should be used to compare results, e.g. on power consumption, with data from the literature.