• A concept for electrowinning of aluminium using depolarized gas anodes 

      Mokkelbost, Tommy; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Paulsen, Ove Bjørn; Øye, Bjarte Arne; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Aluminium is today commercially produced by the Hall-Héroult process using consumable carbon anodes. Consumable anodes have some concerns such as CO2 emission, continuous anodecathode distance adjustments and replacements ...
    • A method for comparing the HF formation potential of aluminas with different water contents 

      Sommerseth, Camilla; Osen, Karen Sende; Rosenkilde, Christian; Meyer, Astrid J.; Kristiansen, Linda; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (Chapter, 2012)
      In the aluminium industry today, smelters often have to rely on more than one alumina supplier. This creates diversity in the properties of smelter grade alumina (SGA). A method has been developed to compare the HF formation ...
    • A study of anode baking gas composition 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Brandvik, Trond; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A method has been developed to measure gas composition inside the pit in open anode baking furnaces. The gas composition can be used to understand attack on and degradation of the refractory lining, baking behavior and ...
    • Alumina feeding and raft formation: Raft collection and process parameters 

      Gylver, Sindre Engzelius; Omdahl, Nina Helene; Prytz, Ann Kristin; Meyer, Astrid Johanne; Lossius, Lorentz Petter; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Alumina, alongside with electricity and carbon, is the raw material used for production of aluminium in the Hall-Héroult process. An efficient dissolution process is important to acquire stable conditions for the cell, ...
    • Behaviour of Aluminium Carbide in Al-melts during Re-melting 

      Gökelma, Mertol; Aarnæs, Trygve Storm; Maier, Jürgen; Friedrich, Bernd; Tranell, Gabriella (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The presence of non-metallic inclusions in aluminium has become a more critical issue with increasing demands on surface quality and low final wall thicknesses of products. Aluminium carbide particles form during the primary ...
    • Cathode Wear Based on Autopsy of a Shutdown Aluminium Electrolysis Cell 

      Senanu, Samuel; Schøning, Christian; Rørvik, Stein; Wang, Zhaohui; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      To investigate cathode wear, an autopsy of a shutdown aluminium electrolysis cell was conducted. The original lining consisted of a fully impregnated and graphitized carbon block and the cell was shut down after 2461 days ...
    • Cathode Wear in Electrowinning of Aluminum Investigated by a Laboratory Test Cell 

      Wang, Zhaohui; Nobakhtghalati, Saeid; Støre, Anne; Solheim, Asbjørn; Tschöpe, Kati; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      The lifetime of an aluminum electrolysis cell is mainly determined by the cathode wear, especially for high amperage cells utilizing graphitized carbon cathodes. The cathode wear mechanisms are, however, complex and still ...
    • CFD Modelling of Alumina Feeding 

      Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Gylver, Sindre Engzelius; Manger, Eirik (Journal article, 2018)
      The dissolution and distribution of alumina in molten cryolite bath is a complex process, involving heat and mass transfer, phase transition and dynamics for a particle population with variable size and properties. Although ...
    • Chemical Stability of Thermal Insulating Materials in Sodium Vapour Environment 

      Luneng, Raymond; Bertel, Søren N.; Mikkelsen, Jørgen; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      The most typical thermal insulating materials used in the cathode lining in aluminium electrolysis cells are Moler, calcium silicate, or vermiculite. The thermal insulation is important for the overall thermal and dimensional ...
    • Compression Testing of Ceramic Foam Filters (CFFs) Submerged in Aluminium at Operating Temperature 

      Bergin, Are; Fritzsch, Robert; Akhtar, Shahid; Arnberg, Lars; Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Particles and inclusions are commonly removed from molten aluminium with the use of Ceramic Foam Filters (CFF). The mechanical properties of CFFs are of great importance not only during transportation, storage, and mounting, ...
    • Direct Method for Producing Scandium Metal and Scandium-Aluminium Intermetallic Compounds from the Oxides 

      Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Sommerseth, Camilla; Wang, Zhaohui; Darell, Ove (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The electrochemical de-oxidation process, also called FFC-Cambridge process, has been proposed previously to produce reactive metals and their alloys through reduction of their metal oxides. The process works by introducing ...
    • Effect of Coke Properties on the Bubble Formation at the Anodes During Aluminium Electrolysis in Laboratory Scale 

      Gebarowski, Wojciech; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Rørvik, Stein; Lossius, Lorentz Petter; Linga, Hogne; Svensson, Ann Mari (Journal article, 2017)
      The anodic reaction of aluminium electrolysis cells leads to the formation of CO2 bubbles, which partly screen the anode surface and leads to an increase in the cell voltage. An advantage of these bubbles is that the ...
    • The Effect of Grain Refiner on Aluminium Filtration 

      Bao, Sarina; Yang, Jiawei; Akhtar, Shahid; Tundal, Ulf; Tjøtta, Stig; Pettersen, Tanja; Li, Yanjun (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Grain refinement of aluminium and its alloys is a common industrial practice. Fine equiaxed, grain structure leads to improved castability, strength, machinability, formability, and good surface finish. Filtration is one ...
    • Electrochemical Reactivity and Wetting Properties of Anodes Made from Anisotropic and Isotropic Cokes 

      Sommerseth, Camilla; Thorne, Rebecca Jayne; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Sandnes, Espen; Rørvik, Stein; Lossius, Lorentz Petter; Linga, Hogne; Svensson, Ann Mari (Journal article, 2016)
      High quality anodes require stable raw materials. As the quality of the coke available for production of anodes is changing, future production will rely on cokes that are more isotropic with higher impurity levels than ...
    • Evaluation of the Effect of CO2 Cover Gas on the Rate of Oxidation of an AlMgSi Alloy 

      Solem, Cathrine Kyung Won; Ekstrøm, Kai Erik; Tranell, Gabriella; Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth (Journal article, 2020)
      Small additions of beryllium (Be) to aluminum magnesium (AlMg) alloys have proven to decrease their oxidation rate during industrial liquid metal handling. As Be can cause respiratory health issues, it is desirable to ...
    • Formation of aluminium carbide in Hall-Héroult electrolysis cell environments 

      Novák, Bronislav; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Wang, Zhaohui; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The formation and dissolution of aluminium carbide under conditions similar to the chemical and electrochemical environments in the Hall-Héroult process were studied in laboratory cells, including cells with reversed ...
    • Gas Anodes Made of Porous Graphite for Aluminium Electrowinning 

      Khalaghi, Babak; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Paulsen, Ove; Mokkelbost, Tommy; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Journal article, 2017)
      One of the major downsides of the current aluminium production process is the high CO2 emission. One alternative is to replace the consumable carbon anodes with inert anodes so that oxygen evolves instead of CO2. Also PFC ...
    • Heat Treatment of Mg-Containing Aluminum Alloys 5182 and 6016 in an Oxidizing Atmosphere with 4% CO2 

      Solem, Cathrine Kyung Won; Vullum, Per Erik; Tranell, Gabriella; Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Oxidation of liquid aluminum (Al) during processing is a widely known problem, and magnesium (Mg), as a common alloying element, increases the oxidation rate of the alloy. It has been established that small additions of ...
    • Heating New Anodes Using the Waste Heat of Anode Butts: Establishing the Interface Thermal Contact Resistance 

      Dupuis, Marc; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      In order to be able to assess the rate of heat transfer between a new anode and an anode butt, it is critical to measure the interface thermal contact resistance between them. For that purpose, a lab experiment has been ...
    • Impurity Elements in Raw Gas Ultra-Fines from Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 

      Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      The effect of alumina feeding and pot suction rate on the amount and composition of fine particles in raw gases has been investigated. Particle size distribution of ultra-fines (Di < 10 μm) were measured in real time and ...