• Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas 

      Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora Therese; Rakke, Jørgen Glomvik; Psaraftis, Harilaos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive ...
    • Maritime Shipping and Emissions: A three-layered, damage based approach 

      Lindstad, Haakon; Eskeland, Gunnar; Psaraftis, Harilaos; Sandaas, Inge; Strømman, Anders Hammer (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015-12-01)
      Policy emphasis in ship design must be shifted away from global and idealized towards regional based and realistic vessel operating conditions. The present approach to reducing shipping emissions through technical standards ...
    • On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas 

      Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, ...