• Assessment of the Thermodynamic Stability of Thermal Insulating Materials in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 

      Luneng, Raymond; Grande, Tor; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Conference object, 2016)
      The cathode bottom lining in aluminium electrolysis cells serves as a thermal insulating barrier and is important for the overall thermal and dimensional stability of the cell. The thermal insulation layer ...
    • Chemical Durability of Thermal Insulating Materials in Hall-Héroult Electrolysis Cells 

      Luneng, Raymond; Bertel, Søren N.; Mikkelsen, Jørgen; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The most common thermal insulating materials used in the cathode lining in aluminum electrolysis cells are Moler (diatomaceous earth), calcium silicate, or vermiculite based materials. The thermal insulation layer is ...
    • Chemical Stability of Thermal Insulating Materials in Sodium Vapour Environment 

      Luneng, Raymond; Bertel, Søren N.; Mikkelsen, Jørgen; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      The most typical thermal insulating materials used in the cathode lining in aluminium electrolysis cells are Moler, calcium silicate, or vermiculite. The thermal insulation is important for the overall thermal and dimensional ...
    • Development of Hydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-Icing Applications 

      Luneng, Raymond (Master thesis, 2015)
      Prevention of ice formation is an important yet dicult task for many industries operating under freezing conditions, such as aeronautics and the oil industry. Ice accumulation can severely limit the operational eciency, ...
    • Thermal Insulation Materials in Aluminum Electrolysis Cells 

      Luneng, Raymond (Doctoral theses at NTNU;2020:112, Doctoral thesis, 2020)
      Aluminum is produced by an energy intensive process known as the Hall-Héroult process, which has been developed extensively since it was first invented in 1886. Recent trends in the aluminum industry has been to strive for ...
    • Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thermal Insulating Materials Exposed to Sodium Vapor 

      Luneng, Raymond; Wang, Zhaohui; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The bottom thermal insulating layer in aluminum electrolysis cells is normally well protected from chemical attacks by a refractory layer. However, autopsies of spent cathode lining have shown that sodium vapor may reach ...