• An experimental evaluation of bow-tie analysis for cybersecurity requirements 

      Meland, Per Håkon; Bernsmed, Karin; Frøystad, Christian; Li, Jingyue; Sindre, Guttorm (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Bow-tie analysis includes a graphical representation for depicting threats and consequences related to unwanted events, and shows how preventive and reactive barriers can provide control over such situations. This kind of ...
    • An experimental evaluation of bow-tie analysis for security 

      Meland, Per Håkon; Bernsmed, Karin; Frøystad, Christian; Li, Jingyue; Sindre, Guttorm (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      Purpose Within critical-infrastructure industries, bow-tie analysis is an established way of eliciting requirements for safety and reliability concerns. Because of the ever-increasing digitalisation and coupling between ...
    • Exchange of Security Incident Information in the context of Cloud Services 

      Frøystad, Christian (Master thesis, 2015)
      In recent years, the use of cloud computing has increased significantly. More and more organizations are moving their services to the cloud as there are rather compelling benefits from using cloud computing. Some of these ...
    • Is a Smarter Grid Also Riskier? 

      Bernsmed, Karin; Jaatun, Martin Gilje; Frøystad, Christian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The smart grid evolution digitalizes the traditional power distribution grid, by integrating information communication technology into its operation and control. A particularly interesting challenge is the integration of ...
    • Perceived Information Security in the Maritime Sector 

      Skoglund, Roy (Master thesis, 2017)
      The maritime sector is increasingly dependent on digital systems; systems that in many cases was initially designed without security in mind. At the same time, it is reported that the levels of information security awareness ...
    • PKI vs. Blockchain when Securing Maritime Operations 

      Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan; Meland, Per Håkon; Frøystad, Christian; Drugan, Ovidiu Valentin (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The maritime sector is rapidly being digitalized as part of the introduction of Shipping 4.0. One of the most important drivers for digitalization is the possibility to automate work processes on board and on shore. However, ...
    • Security of the Smart Grid 

      Avevor, Wisdom Edem (Master thesis, 2018)
      Given the incorporation of a communication network into the traditional power grid, the smart grid is equipped with devices that provide sensing, measurement, and control. This gives the smart grid numerous advantages over ...
    • The Risks of Marine Cloud Computing 

      Eriksen, Adrian Alexander (Master thesis, 2017)
      The maritime industry has an increasing reliance on information and communication technology (ICT) systems to ensure efficient operations, moving their threat picture into the cyber domain. Meanwhile, cloud computing has ...
    • Visualizing Cyber Security Risks with Bow-Tie Diagrams 

      Bernsmed, Karin; Frøystad, Christian; Meland, Per Håkon; Nesheim, Dag Atle; Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      Safety and security risks are usually analyzed independently, by different people using different tools. Consequently, the system analyst may fail to realize cyber attacks as a contributing factor to safety impacts or, on ...